Al-Fārābī
Muslim philosopher (870-950), one of the leading Arab thinkers of the Middle Ages, became known as the Magister Secundus. He dealt with both metaphysics, psychology, logic and practical philosophy (political and moral). His thought influenced decisively later philosophers in Islam and especially...
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Al-Kindī
Iraqi philosopher, mathematician, physicist and musician (c. 800-870), the first of the "Hellenizing philosophers." He gathered around him scholars who undertook the translation of Greek philosophical texts. His contribution to the development of philosophical vocabulary and philosophical...
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Ammonius, son of Hermias
Neoplatonist philosopher, who held the public chair of philosophy in Alexandria during the last decades of the 5th and the first decades of the 6th century AD. His exegetical output, such as it was recorded and published mostly by his students, was very large. His exegetical method and...
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Ancient biographies of Plato
Six extensive biographies of Plato survive from antiquity. These are our main sources of information about the philosopher’s life.
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Antiochus of Ascalon
Platonist philosopher (ca. 130-68 BCE), pupil of the Academic sceptic, Philo of Larissa, from whom he departed rejecting Philo’s skepticism as unfitting to Plato’s philosophy.
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Antisthenes
Philosopher, one of the so-called minor Socratics. Lived in Athens during the last quarter of the 5th century and the first half of the 4th century BC. He was involved in the Sophistic movement and later joined the Socratic circle. He adopted the Socratic view of virtue combined with an ascetic...
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Apuleius
Platonist philosopher, rhetorician and fiction writer (ca. 125-180 CE)
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Archytas
Pythagorean philosopher, mathematician and politician, Archytas of Tarentum was a contemporary and a friend of Plato. He made a significant contribution to mathematics, and to the theory of music of the 4th c. B.C. Furthermore, he is thought to have influenced Plato's views on the relation between...
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Aristippus
Aristippus of Cyrene (435-355 BC) was one of the so-called minor Socratics, and a close associate of Socrates. His work focused mainly on ethics, and he argued in favor of pleasure as a basic constituent of the good life. He is known as the founder of Cyrenaic hedonism, a school of philosophical...
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Aristotle
Aristotle was Plato's greatest student and philosophical equal. Only his didactic works have been saved, which fully work out a comprehensive encyclopedia of knowledge. Aristotle fashioned his ontology through a critique of the Platonic theory of Ideas. The Aristotelian comprehensive world view...
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