Aristotelianism and Platonism in late Byzantium
The issue of oppositional relationship Plato and Aristotle and the primacy of a set again by the Byzantines in the 14th century thinkers, interrupting a long tradition of acceptance Neoplatonist concept of agreement between the two philosophers.
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Education in Classical Athens
Education -paideia- for the Athenians of the Classical era meant the moral edification of freeborn youths that involved bodily exercise, musical instruction and basic literacy skills. Affluent families could further arrange advanced instruction for their children, specializing in mathematics...
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Gymnasia and intellectual life
In classical antiquity, gymnasia operated as centres for the physical education (athletics) of younger and older men. Their popularity made them into sites of social interaction. The three major gymnasia of Athens, Cynosarges, Academy, and Lyceum, evolved into centres for education and...
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Historical events of the 428/7-348/7 period (or 431-338 BC)
Plato was born (according to the prevailing opinion) roughly three years after the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, and died nine years before the Battle of Chaeronea. Within that century, Athens and Greece at large were shaken by huge battles and experienced critical political reversals.
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Migration of philosophers and decline of the Neoplatonic school of Athens
The prohibition of the teaching of philosophy in Athens by a decree issued by Justinian in 529 AD (as recorded by the chronicler John Malalas), and the subsequent exile of the Neoplatonic philosophers at the court of the Persian king Chosroes II (as recorded by the historian Agathias): the two...
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Political Institutions in Classical Athens
The democracy of Athens reached its full development with Kleisthenes’ reforms in 507 B.C., and preserved it until their defeat in the Lamian War in 322 B.C. - when the Macedonians interfered in the city’s internal affairs. The constitution was named democracy because the power to rule...
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Political life in Classical Athens
In Classical Athens almost all areas of public and private life were connected with politics. Democratic institutions interfered in economic and family affairs. Religion and the arts also carried strong political implications. In the Agora and other public spaces, the Athenians constantly discussed...
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Society in Classical Athens
Classical Athens was populated by thousands of people. According to the customs of the period, they were divided into groups of divergent political, social and professional rights and obligations.
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Socrates’ Trial
In 399 BC Socrates is condemned to death for impiety and corruption of the young. His trial is registered as a dark moment in the history of democracy, since it implies the execution of a philosopher, not for his deeds but rather for his ideas.
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The Academy of Plato (structure and organization)
According to the literary sources and the archaeological evidence, the Academy founded by Plato at Athens is distinguished as the first organized intellectual centre of university level in human history.
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